About Us Texture Analyzers Probes and Fixtures
Texture Profile Analysis (TPA)

The texture profile analysis is a method developed for the texture and taste of food. The unique two-compression action mode simulates the bite pattern of the human oral cavity. After analysis by the graphical analysis tool, it can provide the tester with nine important texture parameters at one time. After a long period of development (1960s ~), it has been used in many application fields. Related areas include: bakery products, dairy products, gels, processed meat products, etc.

Test mode of two bites

Action description

  1. When the test starts, the probe moves downward from the original starting point. (Bite 1)
  2. When the probe reaches the trigger point (according to Trigger force), it starts to calculate the target distance (Target), and then moves down to the target.
  3. The probe returns to the previous trigger point and begins to dwell. The dwell time depends on the sample recovery speed.
  4. After the dwell time is completed, the probe moves downward from the trigger point again. (Bite 2)
  5. Reach the target of the first compression.
  6. Return upward from the target point to the original starting point.

Formula of Texture Profile Analysis TPA

Test mode of TPA with distance and force

1. Hardness: Maximum force value in the first pressing section.
2. Fracturability: A smaller peak before hardness.
3. Adhesiveness: A3 area
4. Springiness: T2 / T1
5. Chewiness: Gumminess x Springiness = A2 / A1 x Hardness x Springiness
6. Gumminess: A2 / A1 x hardness
7. Cohesiveness: A2 / A1
8. Resilience: A5 / A4

Texture analysis (TPA) term definition

An indicator that most directly reflects the taste, in the texture profile analysis, directly affects Chewiness, Gumminess and Cohesiveness.

This parameter is unique to samples with a crispy shell (crust). Most samples cannot measure this parameter. Generally speaking, if this parameter cannot be measured, the software will automatically hide it.

After the sample is deformed under pressure, if the sample surface is sticky, negative force will be generated. In the food field, it can be interpreted as a sticky taste.

The height that food can recover between the end of the first bite and the beginning of the second bite.

Chewiness is defined as Gumminess x Springiness. Can be explained as the energy required to chew solid food. It is difficult to measure accurately because chewing involves compression, shearing, puncture, crushing, tearing, cutting, etc., and is also related to oral conditions (saliva secretion, body temperature). This parameter is mainly used to describe the taste of solid and semi-solid.

Gumminess is defined as hardness x cohesion. One of the characteristics of semi-solid food is that it has low hardness and high cohesion. Therefore, this indicator should be used to describe the taste of semi-solid foods.

Cohesiveness is defined as the ratio of the positive area of ​​the first compression to the area of ​​the second compression.Tensile strength is an indication of cohesion, and if the sample is better condensed, the probe will be easier to keep clean. Cohesiveness is usually tested as a secondary parameter compared to brittleness, chewiness and gumminess.

Resilience is a measure of how well a sample recovers from deformation, including both speed and force.It is defined as the ratio of the area in front of the deformation target to the area behind the deformation target during the first pressing. When measuring, you need to pay attention to the recovery status of the sample. Generally speaking, a slower test speed is used to allow the sample enough time to recover. It also ensures the accuracy of this feature.


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